Afghanistan is a country that serves as a buffer-state between two superpowers of the time, England and Russia, and it marked the time as a specified boundary between two colonial powers.
England was placed in the south and Russia in the north of Afghanistan, but after the Second World War and the rise of a superpower like the USA, international deals changed. America could consolidate its position in the region and world, by stealing the position of English and England had to leave the region after India’s revolution.
What remained was India that had recently achieved independence and did not have an internal political stability and this matter paved the way for the emergence of another country within this geographic region.
The emergence of Pakistan created a lot of problems for India and Afghanistan. Kashmir issue, and Durand line of Afghanistan by expressing an issue called “rights of Pashtuns on the other side of Durand” (at the time of Daoud Khan), put the subject named Pashtunistan at the top of its foreign policy too, and stirred the anger of Pakistanis and made this country to adopt strong stance against Afghanistan.
Afghanistan officially cancelled Durand line in 1949 and asked the UN to solve the issue by the vote of races in both sides of the border, but the government of Pakistan urged Afghanistan to recognize the line. The history is a good evidence that the problems of Afghanistan soared when Pakistan separated from India and a big trouble called Durand created.
Stability and security in Afghanistan have direct relation with the cooperation of Pakistan; but why relations between the two countries became so hostile since the rise of Pakistan?
One of the main problem that arose in the context of the dispute, is the issue of Durand line and the claims of Pashtunistan. One of the important historical topic that indeed, can remind as axis of seizures between Afghanistan and Pakistan in the last half century: is Durand treaty that this matter even changed into a hot international issue too.
The line was signed in November 1893 at the time of Abdul-Rahman Khan, with representative of British India called “Mortimer Durand” that today this line is known as Durand line. Abdul-Rahman Khan gave up the claim of Afghanistan from areas of Swat-Bajor, Chatral, Waziristan and Chaman, under this treaty. But with the creation of Pakistan, Afghan government did not recognize the line and we see that this line created problems for both countries up to now. Today voices that are heard, suggests that there is a pro team inside Afghanistan that wants Durand line to be recognized by the government of Afghanistan.
Recent statements of Abdullatif Pedram, a Member of Parliament, about recognizing the Durand line have followed sharp reactions that mentioned him as a traitor and spy of Pakistan. As some Senators called the remarks as decisive discord.
But what seems important, is that how to overcome this problem?
On the one hand, there is a document that shows representative of Afghanistan in that time agreed with the line and signed the treaty, on the other hand, relatives are living on both sides of the border, that have close family bond and according to one of these people, “the line has passed from their chests.” What seems important here or must be seriously paid attention, are the big national interests that any kind of political behavior should be formed in the frame of that.
M. Taqi Hussaini – (DID) news agency
Translated by: Taher Mojab